|IMAGES AND VIDEOS
|Year : 2016 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 140-142
Imaging of esophageal stent with convex probe endobronchial ultrasound
Abdul Hamid Alraiyes, Kassem Harris, Samjot Singh Dhillon
Interventional Pulmonary Section, Department of Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute; Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USA
|Date of Submission||28-Nov-2014|
|Date of Acceptance||21-Jan-2015|
|Date of Web Publication||15-Apr-2016|
Abdul Hamid Alraiyes
Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Alraiyes AH, Harris K, Dhillon SS. Imaging of esophageal stent with convex probe endobronchial ultrasound. Endosc Ultrasound 2016;5:140-2
A 79-year-old man presented with dysphagia. A computed tomography (CT) chest scan showed a dilated esophagus and prominence of the subcarinal nodal area. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) revealed an abnormal narrowing of the esophagus between 25 cm and 30 cm, with a tumor extending 3 cm below the gastroesophageal (GE) junction. Biopsies demonstrated invasive esophageal adenocarcinoma. Due to the friable esophagus and possibility of needle contamination, a needle aspiration of the subcarinal node/mass/infiltrative process was not obtained during the EUS staging. An 18 mm Χ 103 mm fully covered esophageal stent was placed over the guide wire and under fluoroscopy guidance.
The follow-up CT chest scan showed the stent in the esophagus with anterior displacement of the posterior tracheal wall and less prominence of the previously seen subcarinal abnormality [Figure 1]. The bronchoscopy with the convex probe endobronchial ultrasound (CP-EBUS) was performed for airway assessment and sampling of subcarinal lymph node. The bronchoscopy showed 30% narrowing in the distal third of the trachea from a bulge of the posterior wall [Figure 2]. The CP-EBUS showed the esophageal stent behind the posterior wall of the trachea and left mainstem bronchus, as a serrated hyperechoic area at the edge of the subcarinal infiltrative process [Figure 3]. An EBUS-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) was carefully performed from this area, as there was only a small window for sampling [Figure 4]. The cytology suggested an inflammatory process without any malignancy.
Esophageal stents are usually placed in patients with dysphagia secondary to malignancy or benign disorders.  Malignant dysphagia is defined as difficulty in swallowing due to mechanical compression of the esophagus caused by cancer, resulting in partially or completely obstructed esophageal lumen . Due to the distensible nature of the esophagus the patients will not recognize the symptoms until 50% of the luminal diameter is compromised, this can cause a significant delay in the recognition of the symptoms and unfortunately diagnosis at advanced stage 
Esophageal stents play an important role in the palliative treatment of those patients since more than 50% of them are present when the tumor is unresectable. 
We are presenting a case of an already-placed esophageal stent and need further sampling of the subcarinal lymph node. The EBUS were used to assess and sample the subcarinal lymph node.
The role of EBUS has expanded from its initial role in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancers to diagnosing other mediastinal benign and malignant conditions such as sarcoidosis, melanoma and lymphoma. , Recently, the EBUS scope has been used for the diagnosis of vascular diseases such as pulmonary thromboembolic disease, and pulmonary and venous pulmonary tumors. , Beyond its diagnostic role, the therapeutic role of CP-EBUS continues to grow. CP-EBUS has been used to guide implantation of radiotherapy monitoring devices and placement of fiducial markers to guide stereotactic radiosurgery.
The aim of this report is to describe the imaging characteristics of esophageal stent using CP-EBUS. Esophageal stents are usually hyperechoic and can vary in shape, depending on the viewing plane with EBUS. In our case, the stent's image was ranging from a straight hyperechoic line to a serrated curved hyperechoic net, which limits the view beyond the stent and prohibiting the identification of anatomical structures. Therefore, it is important to recognize the appearance of esophageal stent with EBUS so as not to confuse the EBUS needle, which itself looks hyperechoic [Figure 4].
| References|| |
Didden P, Spaander MC, Bruno MJ, et al
. Esophageal stents in malignant and benign disorders. Curr Gastroenterol Rep
Karbowski M, Schembre D, Kozarek R, et al
. Polyflex self-expanding, removable plastic stents: Assessment of treatment efficacy and safety in a variety of benign and malignant conditions of the esophagus. Surg Endosc
Kozarek RA. Self-expandable metal stents in the GI tract. Rev Gastroenterol Mex
Sundelöf M, Ye W, Dickman PW, et al
. Improved survival in both histologic types of oesophageal cancer in Sweden. Int J Cancer
Billé A, Pelosi E, Skanjeti A, et al
. Preoperative intrathoracic lymph node staging in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer: Accuracy of integrated positron emission tomography and computed tomography. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
Shingyoji M, Nakajima T, Yoshino M, et al
. Endobronchial ultrasonography for positron emission tomography and computed tomography-negative lymph node staging in non-small cell lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surg
Aumiller J, Herth FJ, Krasnik M, et al
. Endobronchial ultrasound for detecting central pulmonary emboli: A pilot study. Respiration
Modi K, Dhillon S, Kumar A, et al
. Leiomyosarcoma of the pulmonary artery diagnosed by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration. Endosc Ultrasound
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]