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   2012| October-December  | Volume 1 | Issue 3  
    Online since September 6, 2013

 
 
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EDITORIAL
Is EUS here to stay? Accuracy is not an indication...
Anand V Sahai
October-December 2012, 1(3):117-118
DOI:10.7178/eus.03.001  PMID:24949348
  929 4,295 -
REVIEWS
Endoscopic ultrasound-guided bilio-pancreatic drainage
Marc Giovannini, Erwan Bories, Félix I Téllez-Ávila
October-December 2012, 1(3):119-129
DOI:10.7178/eus.03.002  PMID:24949349
The echoendoscopic biliary drainage is an option to treat obstructive jaundices when endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatog­raphy (ERCP) drainage fails. These procedures compose alternative methods to the side of surgery and percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, and it was only possible by the continuous development and improvement of echoendoscopes and accessories. The development of linear sectorial array echoendoscopes in early 1990 brought a new approach to diagnostic and therapeutic dimen­sion on echoendoscopy capabilities, opening the possibility to perform punction over direct ultrasonografic view. Despite of the high success rate and low morbidity of biliary drainage obtained by ERCP, difficulty could be found at the presence of stent tumor ingrown, tumor gut compression, periampullary diverticula and anatomic variation. The echoendoscopic technique starts perform­ing punction and contrast of the left biliary tree. When performed from gastric wall, the access is made through hepatic segment III. From duodenum, direct common bile duct punction. Diathermic dilatation of the puncturing tract is required using a 6-Fr cys­tostome and a plastic or metal stent is introducted. The techincal success of hepaticogastrostomy is near 98%, and complications are present in 20%: pneumoperitoneum, choleperitoneum, infection and stent disfunction. To prevent bile leakage, we have used the 2-stent techniques. The first stent introduced was a long uncovered metal stent (8 or 10 cm) and inside this first stent a second fully covered stent of 6 cm was delivered to bridge the bile duct and the stomach. Choledochoduodenostomy overall success rate is 92%, and described complications include, in frequency order, pneumoperitoneum and focal bile peritonitis, present in 14%. By the last 10 years, the technique was especially performed in reference centers, by ERCP experienced groups, and this seems to be a general guideline to safer procedure execution. The ideal approach for pancreatic pseudo-cyst (PPC) puncture combines endos­copy with real time endosonography using an interventional echoendoscope. Several authors have described the use of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) longitudinal scanners for guidance of transmural puncture and drainage procedures. The same technique could be used to access a dilated pancreatic duct in cases in which the duct cannot be drained by conventional ERCP because of complete obstruction.
  2,366 1,848 -
Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound
Christoph F Dietrich, M Sharma, M Hocke
October-December 2012, 1(3):130-136
DOI:10.7178/eus.03.003  PMID:24949350
The European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) introduced guidelines on the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in 2004. This EFSUMB-document focused mainly on liver applications. However, new applications extending beyond the liver were developed thereafter. Increased interest in recent years in CEUS technique and in the application of CEUS in novel fields like endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has revolutionized indications and applications. As a result, the EFSUMB initiated a new update of the guidelines in 2011 to include this additional knowledge. Some of the contrast-enhanced EUS (CE-EUS) indications are established, whereas others are preliminary; these latter indications are categorized as emergent CEUS applications since the available evidence is insufficient for general recommendation. This article focuses on the use of CE-EUS in various clinical settings. The reader will get an overview of current indications and possible applications of CE-EUS. This involves the introduction of different contrast studies including color Doppler techniques (known as contrast-enhanced high mechanical index endosonography or CEHMI-EUS) as well as more modern high-resolution contrast-enhanced techniques (known as contrast-enhanced low mechanical index endosonography or CELMI EUS).
  1,694 475 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A kit for eus-guided access and drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts: efficacy in a porcine model
Kenneth F Binmoeller, Ioana Smith, Monica Gaidhane, Michel Kahaleh
October-December 2012, 1(3):137-142
DOI:10.7178/eus.03.004  PMID:24949351
Objective: Transluminal pseudocyst drainage with currently available tools remains technically challenging, time consuming and limited to fluid collections adherent to the GI tract. Multiple tools and steps are still required to achieve pseudocyst drainage. We evaluated a novel kit to facilitate endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided access, drainage and rapid decompression in a porcine model. Methods: The kit consists of the NAVIX access device and the AXIOS stent delivery system. The NAVIX contains an inner trocar for puncture and an outer dual balloon catheter for anchorage and dilation. The AXIOS stent is a fully covered dual flanged stent. Both are inserted through the working channel of a curved linear array echoendoscope. In a porcine model, a gallbladder was used as a proxy for a pseudocyst. Results: Six Yorkshire pigs underwent this procedure successfully without complication and 3 of them were kept alive. After a 4-week implantation period, the AXIOS stents were removed easily using a snare and the 3 animals were observed for an additional 4 weeks. The stents were well-tolerated by the stomach and gallbladder tissues, as confirmed by weekly endoscopic inspection, gross necropsy and histopathology. Conclusion: EUS-guided transluminal access and drainage of the porcine gallbladder was technical feasible using a novel kit. This kit has the potential to simplify, streamline, and improve the safety of pancreatic pseudocyst drainage.
  1,705 246 -
Power doppler endoscopic ultrasound for the assessment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors
Sevastita Iordache, Radu Angelescu, Maria Monalisa Filip, Mãdãlin Ionut Costache, Carmen Florina Popescu, Dan-Ionut Gheonea, Adrian Sãftoiu
October-December 2012, 1(3):150-155
DOI:10.7178/eus.03.006  PMID:24949353
Objective: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) represent rare, heterogeneous tumors with clinical, imaging and treatment particularities. The aim of this study was to assess the role of power Doppler endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the diagnosis and characterization of PNET. Methods: All consecutive patients with PNET assessed by power Doppler EUS in the Research Centre of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Craiova, Romania, in the past 51 months were included in the study. All EUS examinations were performed initially in gray-scale mode, followed by power Doppler mode examinations, before and after contrast-enhancement. Each recorded EUS movie was further subjected to post-processing using a computer-enhanced dynamic analysis using a special plug-in which permit­ted assessment of vascularity index (EUS-VI). Results: Based on the analysis of all consecutive malignant focal pancreatic masses diagnosed in the study period, a total number of 131 consecutive patients were included: 14 patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and 117 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The sensitivity of the pre-contrast EUS-VI for the diagnosis of PNET was 71.43%, similar to EUS-FNA. After contrast enhancement, the EUS-VI is also higher in PNET (27.07%) as compared to pancreatic adenocarcinoma where it was sig­nificantly lower 9.82% (P < 0.001). However, the sensitivity of EUS-VI after contrast enhancement for the diagnosis of PNET was 100%, higher than pre-contrast EUS-VI, with an acceptable specificity (79.49%) and better accuracy (81.68%). Conclusion: Power Doppler EUS represents a useful method in the initial assessment of PNET. Using evaluation of vascularity through EUS-VI, the differentiation between PNET and pancreatic cancer could be possible, especially in the subgroup of patients where EUS-guided fine needle aspiration is falsely negative.
  1,409 257 -
Yield of contrast-enhanced power doppler endoscopic ultrasonography and strain ratio obtained by eus-elastography in the diagnosis of focal pancreatic solid lesions
Fátima A.F Figueiredo, Patricia M da Silva, Genevieve Monges, Erwan Bories, Christian Pesenti, Fabrice Caillol, Jean R Delpero, Marc Giovannini
October-December 2012, 1(3):143-149
DOI:10.7178/eus.03.005  PMID:24949352
Objective: Although endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is the gold standard for diagnosing pancreatic lesions, its negative predictive value is suboptimal. Our aim was to evaluate the yield of contrast-enhanced EUS (CED-EUS) and of strain ratio EUS-elastography (SR-E-EUS) for differentiating pancreatic solid lesions. Methods: Forty-seven patients (27 men, 20 women, 70 ± 11 years) were consecutively involved in this single-center, prospective study. They were submitted to EUS, SR-E-EUS, CED-EUS with Sonovue®, and EUS-FNA. The final diagnosis was based on the histological assessment of EUS-FNA and/or surgical specimens when available, and on follow-up of at least 6 months. Results: From the 47 focal pancreatic lesions included, 13 (28%) were benign and 34 (72%) malignant. Patients with malignancy were older (70 ± 11 vs. 61 ± 8, P = 0.003), and had larger lesions (34 ± 12 mm vs. 22 ± 11 mm, P = 0.03). Malignant lesions had higher SR-E-EUS (31 ± 32 vs. 8 ± 9, P = 0.001) and more hypovascular pattern (93% vs. 33%, P < 0.001). Logistic regression deter­mined that only hypovascularity (OR = 2.6, 95%CI: 1.5-130, P = 0.02) was independently predictive of malignancy. ROC analysis for SR-E-EUS yielded an optimal cutoff of 8 (AUC 0.91, 95%CI: 0.74-0.98) for the best power distinction for malignancy. There was no significant difference concerning sensitivity (79%, 90%, 93%) and specificity rates (85%, 75%, 67%) of EUS-FNA, SR-E-EUS, and CED-EUS, respectively. By analysis of the inconclusive EUS-FNA subset (9 patients, 19%), SR-E-EUS > 8 and hypovas­cularity showed sensitivity of 80% and 100%, and specificity of 67% and 67%, respectively. Conclusion: The clinical utility of CED-EUS and SR-E-EUS remains questionable. The accuracies of CED-EUS and SR-E-EUS are similar to EUS-FNA. Hypovascularity was independently predictive of malignancy. Patients with inconclusive EUS-FNA could benefit from CED-EUS due to the high sensitivity of hypovascularity for diagnosing malignancy.
  1,074 338 -
A one-step procedure by using linear echoendoscope to perform EUS-guided choledochoduodenostomy and duodenal stenting in patients with irresectable periampullary cancer
Carolina Rebello, Andre Bordini, Andre Yoshida, Bruno Viana, Pedro E.N Ramos, Jose P Otoch, Luiz Marcelo Cirino, Everson L.A. Artifon
October-December 2012, 1(3):156-161
DOI:10.7178/eus.03.007  PMID:24949354
Objective: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided choledochoduodenostomy (EUS-CD) has become an alternative method after unsuc­cessful endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) treatment. We present a case series study and its feasibility by using only a linear therapeutic channel echoendoscope to create both a biliary-enteral fistula and anatomic enteral recanalization. Methods: We presented seven cases of unresectable periampullary cancer with both biliary and duodenal obstruction. In these cases, the EUS-guided technique might be an alternative to double stenting (biliary and enteral) in the same procedure and equip­ment. Results: In all cases, the location of the biliary obstruction was in the distal common bile duct (CBD) and the grade of proximal dilation diameter varied from 15 mm to 20 mm. Two patients had type I (28.6%) and five had type II (71.4%) duodenal obstruction. Technical success of EUS-CD, by the stent placement, occurred in 100% of the cases. There were no early complications. Biliary drainage was effective clinically as well as in laboratory in 6 cases (6/7), by relieving obstructive jaundice and decreasing bilirubin levels. Conclusion: EUS equipment may offer an alternative to double stenting in the same procedure and with palliative propose.
  1,142 263 -
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
Splenic tuberculosis diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration
Surinder Singh Rana, Deepak Kumar Bhasin, Chalapathi Rao, Adarsh Barwad, Pranab Dey, Santosh Sampath, Bhagwant R Mittal, Kartar Singh
October-December 2012, 1(3):167-168
DOI:10.7178/eus.03.010  PMID:24949357
  1,107 193 -
CASE REPORTS
Role of endoscopic ultrasonography in intramural bronchogenic cysts: Case reports and review of the literature
Alexandre Klamt, Adriana Di Loreto, Raquel Del Valle, Hannah Pitanga Lukashok, Carlos Robles-Medranda
October-December 2012, 1(3):162-164
DOI:10.7178/eus.03.008  PMID:24949355
The differentiation between a solid and cystic lesion is not always easy. EUS has provided a minimally invasive approach to the diag­nosis of benign mediastinal cysts. Our report describes two cases of intramural bronchogenic cysts and reviews the role of EUS in dealing with such cases. We conclude that the bronchogenic cysts are still a challenge despite evolution of the imaging studies.
  1,086 181 -
IMAGE IN EUS
Communication of duodenal varix with pericholedochal venous plexus demonstrated by endoscopic ultrasound in a patient of portal biliopathy
Surinder Singh Rana, Deepak Kumar Bhasin, Chalapathi Rao
October-December 2012, 1(3):165-166
DOI:10.7178/eus.03.009  PMID:24949356
  809 179 -
MEETING REPORT
Report of EUS presentations during the 20th UEGW meeting in amsterdam
Marc Giovannini
October-December 2012, 1(3):169-172
DOI:10.7178/eus.03.011  
  800 159 -
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